Original research| Volume 7, ISSUE 2, P167-171, July 2013

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Influence of macro- and microvascular comorbidity on time to insulin initiation in type 2 diabetes patients: A retrospective database analysis in Germany, France, and UK

Published:March 14, 2013DOI:



      To investigate if micro- and macrovascular co-morbidity has an influence on the time to insulin initiation in type 2 diabetes patients.


      Longitudinal data from general practices in Germany, France and UK (Disease Analyzer) from 1995 to 2009 were analyzed, including 44,440 patients in Germany, 10,148 patients in France, and 25,499 patients in UK with newly diagnosed diabetes (index date). Cox regression was used to investigate the association of newly diagnosed micro- and macrovascular complications (ICD-10) on the time to insulin initiation adjusting for age, sex, antidiabetic therapy, and co-morbidity (hypertension, lipid disorders).


      Insulin treatment was started in 9747 (22%) patients in Germany within 10 years after index date (France: n = 702, 7%; UK: 3936, 14%). In all three countries, occurrence of microvascular complications was significantly associated with a higher likelihood to have insulin initiated (hazard ratio (HR), 95%CI: neuropathy: Germany 1.6; 1.5–1.8; France: 2.1; 1.1–3.9; UK: 1.5; 1.3–1.9; nephropathy: Germany 1.4; 1.3–1.6; France: 2.7; 1.4–3.8; UK: 1.2; 1.1–1.3). Among macrovascular complications, only coronary heart disease was related to insulin initiation in all three countries (Germany 1.2; 1.1–1.3; France: 1.5; 1.2–2.0; UK: 1.5; 1.3–1.7).


      A more rapid progression to insulin therapy was found in patients with microvascular complications.


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