Original research| Volume 7, ISSUE 4, P249-259, December 2013

Download started.


The performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, a modified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and a simplified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score in community-based cross-sectional screening of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Philippines

Published:August 16, 2013DOI:



      The performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and 2 modifications in community screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (UDD) in the Philippines was evaluated.


      Active community-based screening for diabetes was conducted where FINDRISC assessment was done. Modified (modFINDRISC) and simplified (simpFINDRISC) versions were rendered based on Asian standards, study results, and local context. Diabetes was diagnosed through 2 separate blood glucose tests. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) and statistics for diagnostic tests for FINDRISC and the modifications were analyzed.


      Complete data was collected from 1752 people aged 20–92; 8.6% tested positive for diabetes. ROC-AUC for UDD were 0.738 (FINDRISC), 0.743 (modFINDRISC) and 0.752 (simpFINDRISC). The differences between the FINDRISC and the modifications were not statistically significant (p = 0.172).


      The performance of all 3 risk score calculators in the screening for UDD in the Philippines was good and may be useful in populations having similar characteristics. Considering the setting and resource constraints, the simpFINDRISC is preferred.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Primary Care Diabetes
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Ramachandran A.
        • Ma R.C.W.
        • Snehalatha C.
        Diabetes in Asia.
        Lancet. 2010; 375: 408-418
        • Wild S.
        • Roglic G.
        • Green A.
        • et al.
        Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.
        Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 1047-1053
        • Philippine Food
        • Nutrition Research Institute
        White Paper: 6th National Nutrition and Health Survey.
        Philippine Food & Nutrition Research Institute, Manila2003
        • Philippine Food
        • Nutrition Research Institute
        White Paper: 7th National Nutrition and Health Survey.
        Philippine Food & Nutrition Research Institute, Manila2008
        • International Diabetes Federation
        Diabetes Atlas.
        4th ed. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels2010
        • International Diabetes Federation
        Diabetes Atlas.
        5th ed. with 2012 updates. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels2011
        • Renal Disease Control Program
        White Paper: Philippine Renal Disease Registry Annual Report.
        National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Quezon City2011
      1. Philippine Department of Health. White paper: Ten leading causes of mortality in the Philippines 1982–2006. Available at: (accessed 27.02.13).

        • World Health Organization
        Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment.
        WHO Press, Geneva2005
        • Peltonen M.
        • Lindstrom J.
        • Tuomilehto J.
        Towards the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
        in: Puska P. Vartianen E. Laatikainen T. et al. The North Karelia Project: from North Karelia to National Action. Helsinki University Printing House, Helsinki2009: 231-242
        • Perreault L.
        • Kahn S.E.
        • Christophi C.A.
        • et al.
        Regression from prediabetes to normal glucose regulation in the diabetes prevention program.
        Diabetes Care. 2009; 32: 1503-1588
        • The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group
        10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the diabetes prevention program outcomes study.
        Lancet. 2009; 374: 1677-1686
        • Lindstrom J.
        • Tuomilehto J.
        The diabetes risk score: a practical tool to predict diabetes type 2 risk.
        Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 725-731
      2. Finnish Diabetes Association. Programme for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Finland 2003–2010.
        Finnish Diabetes Association, Gummerus Printing, Jyväskylä2003: 1-94 (
        • Saaristo T.
        • Peltonen M.
        • Lindstrom J.
        • et al.
        Cross-sectional evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score: a tool to identify undetected type 2 diabetes, abnormal glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome.
        Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research. 2005; 2: 67-72
        • Franciosi M.
        • De Berardis G.
        • Rossi M.C.E.
        • et al.
        Use of the diabetes risk score for opportunistic screening of undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: the IGLOO (Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Long-term Outcomes Observational) Study.
        Diabetes Care. 2005; 28: 1187-1194
        • Wang J.
        • Stancakova A.
        • Kuusisto J.
        • Laakso M.
        Identification of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes individuals by the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and biochemical and genetic markers: a population-based study of 7232 Finnish men.
        Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010; 95: 3858-3862
        • Tankova T.
        • Chakarova N.
        • Atanassova I.
        • Dakovska L.
        Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score as a screening tool for impaired fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and undetected diabetes.
        Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2011; 92: 46-52
        • Makrilakis K.
        • Liatis S.
        • Grammatikou S.
        • et al.
        Validation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire for screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, dysglycemia and the metabolic syndrome in Greece.
        Diabetes and Metabolism. 2011; 37: 144-151
        • Soriguer F.
        • Valdes S.
        • Tapia M.J.
        • et al.
        Validation of the FINDRISC (FINnish Diabetes RIsk SCore) for prediction of the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population of southern Spain. Pizarra Study.
        Medicina Clínica (Barc). 2012; 138: 371-376
        • Garcia-Alcala H.
        • Genestier-Tamborero C.N.
        • Hirales-Tamez O.
        • Salinas-Palma J.
        • Soto-Vega E.
        Frequency of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and glucose intolerance in high risk groups identified by a FINDRISC survey in Puebla City, Mexico.
        Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity. 2012; 5: 403-406
      3. The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Guidelines on diabetes, prediabetes and cardiovascular diseases: executive summary.
        European Heart Journal. 2007; 28: 88-136
        • International Diabetes Federation Clinical Guidelines Taskforce
        Global Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
        International Diabetes Federation, Brussels2012
      4. Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations on screening for type 2 diabetes in adults.
        Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2012; 184: 1687-1696
      5. American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2008.
        Diabetes Care. 2008; 231
        • Unite for Diabetes Philippines
        Philippine Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Compendium of Philippine Medicine.
        Malan Press, Pasig City, Philippines2008
        • World Health Organization
        Physical Status: the Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry.
        WHO Press, Geneva1995
        • World Health Organization
        International Association for the Study of Obesity, and the International Obesity Task Force, The Asia-Pacific Perspective: Redefining Obesity and its Treatment.
        Health Communications Australia Pty Limited, Sydney2000
        • International Diabetes Federation Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group
        Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome.
        IDF, Brussels2005
        • Sison J.
        • Arceo L.P.
        • Trinidad E.
        • et al.
        Philippine Heart Association – Council on Hypertension Report on Survey of Hypertension and Target Organ Damage (PRESYON 2-TOD): a report on prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment profile, and control rate.
        Philippine Journal of Cardiology. 2007; 35: 1-9