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Prevalence of diabetic foot disorders and related risk factors among Egyptian subjects with diabetes

Published:December 17, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2014.10.010

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Multiple pathologies including diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and infection contribute to lower extremities amputation in diabetes.

      Aim

      We examined the prevalence of diabetic foot problems and related risk factors in Egypt.

      Subjects and methods

      Between July 2008 and December 2009, 1000 male and 1000 female consecutive adult patients with diabetes (≥18-year-old) attending the Alexandria University Diabetic Foot Screening Clinic were surveyed for history/presence of foot ulcers and/or amputations, skin/nail changes, joint mobility, sensory neuropathy (10 g-Semmes–Weinstein Monofilament) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) using Ankle Brachial Index (ABI).

      Results

      The majority of patients had type 2 diabetes (96.75%) with a mean age of 57.30 ± 10.47 years and a mean disease duration of 11.76 ± 8.26 years. The mean body mass index was 32.84 ± 6.31 kg/m2 with 29.55% being current or ex-smokers. In these subjects, 4.4% had a past history of non-traumatic amputation (male:female: 6.2% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.001); 6.1% had past history (10.3% vs. 7%, p = 0.009) and 8.7% had active foot ulceration (8.1% vs. 4.1% p < 0.001) with a male preponderance. The prevalence of sensory neuropathy was 29.3% (M:F: 30.7%: 27.9%) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was 11% (M:F 11.8%:10.2%). Diabetic foot complications were associated with disease duration (p < 0.001), history of coronary artery disease (p = 0.001), stroke (p = 0.009), PVD (p < 0.001), laser photocoagulation (p < 0.001), sensory neuropathy (p < 0.001) and renal replacement therapy (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, diabetes duration, foot fissures, Charcot's foot, limited joint mobility, PVD and sensory neuropathy remained independently associated with diabetic foot disorders.

      Conclusion

      In Egypt, a mosaic of risk factors contributes to the high prevalence of diabetic foot disease in type 2 diabetes. These findings call for regular assessment of vascular, neuropathic and skin status to prevent these serious foot complications.

      Keywords

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