Advertisement

Help-seeking behaviors for serious psychological distress among individuals with diabetes mellitus: The California Health Interview Survey, 2011–2012

Published:August 01, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2016.07.007

      Highlights

      • This research utilized confidential data in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS).
      • Perceived need is the strongest predictor of seeking help for mental health in this study.
      • Identification of factors affecting help-seeking behaviors may improve clinical outcomes.

      Abstract

      Aim

      To investigate patterns of and factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or serious psychological distress (SPD).

      Methods

      The analysis was conducted with the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011–2012 of 40,803 adults. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between the multiple facilitating/preventing factors and outcome, guided by the Andersen's Health Care Utilization Model.

      Results

      The prevalence of DM and SPD were 10.9% and 3.4%, respectively, among participants in the survey. The participants with DM were more likely to experience SPD than those without DM (OR 1.46, 95% CI = 1.11–1.91, p = 0.006). Participants with combined DM and SPD, the most underserved, were less likely to perceive the need for mental health services and less likely to seek help, compared to those with only SPD. Need factors (SPD status and perceived need) were significantly associated with help-seeking behaviors for mental health, along with predisposing factors (age, gender, obesity, race, and employment), and enabling factors (insurance, English proficiency).

      Conclusions

      Perceptions about need for seeking help seem to play an important role in receiving mental health services in addition to other predisposing or enabling factors. Identification of these factors may improve clinical outcomes related to DM and SPD.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Primary Care Diabetes
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Egede L.E.
        • Ellis C.
        Diabetes and depression. Global perspectives.
        Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2010; 87: 302-312
        • Ali S.
        • Stone M.A.
        • Peters J.L.
        • Davies M.J.
        • Khunti K.
        The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Diabet. Med. 2006; 23: 1165-1173
        • Anderson R.J.
        • Freedland K.E.
        • Clouse R.E.
        • Lustman P.J.
        The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis.
        Diabetes Care. 2001; 24: 1069-1078
        • Grigsby A.B.
        • Anderson R.J.
        • Freedland K.E.
        • Clouse R.E.
        • Lustman P.J.
        Prevalence of anxiety in adults with diabetes.
        J. Psychosomat. Res. 2002; 53: 1053-1060
        • Huang C.J.
        • Chiu H.C.
        • Lee M.H.
        • Wang S.Y.
        Prevalence and incidence of anxiety disorders in diabetic patients: a national population-based cohort study.
        Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry. 2011; 33: 8-15
        • Li C.
        • Ford E.S.
        • Zhao G.
        • Strine T.W.
        • Dhingra S.
        • Barker L.
        • et al.
        Association between diagnosed diabetes and serious psychological distress among U.S. adults: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2007.
        Int. J. Public Health. 2009; 54: 43-51
        • de Groot M.
        • Anderson R.
        • Freedland K.E.
        • Clouse R.E.
        • Lustman P.J.
        Association of depression and diabetes complications: a meta-analysis.
        Psychosom. Med. 2001; 63: 619-630
        • Katon W.J.
        • Rutter C.
        • Simon G.
        • Lin E.H.
        • Ludman E.
        • Ciechanowski P.
        The association of comorbid depression with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 2005; 28: 2668-2672
        • Zhang X.
        • Norris S.L.
        • Gregg E.W.
        • Cheng Y.J.
        • Gregg E.W.
        • Cheng Y.J.
        • et al.
        Depressive symptoms and mortality among persons with and without diabetes.
        Am. J. Epidemiol. 2005; 161: 652-660
        • Subramaniam M.
        • Sum C.F.
        • Pek E.
        • Stahl D.
        • Verma S.
        • Liow P.H.
        • et al.
        Comorbid depression and increased health care utilisation in individuals with diabetes.
        Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry. 2009; 31: 220-224
        • Dismuke C.E.
        • Egede L.E.
        Association of serious psychological distress with health services expenditures and utilization in a national sample of US adults.
        Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry. 2011; 33: 311-317
        • Egede L.E.
        • Zheng D.
        • Simpson K.
        Comorbid depression is associated with increased health care use and expenditures in individuals with diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 2002; 25: 464-470
        • Li C.
        • Ford E.S.
        • Zhao G.
        • Balluz L.S.
        • Berry J.T.
        • Mokdad A.H.
        Undertreatment of mental health problems in adults with diagnosed diabetes and serious psychological distress: the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2007.
        Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 1061-1064
        • Vamos E.P.
        • Mucsi I.
        • Keszei A.
        • Kopp M.S.
        • Novak M.
        Comorbid depression is associated with increased healthcare utilization and lost productivity in persons with diabetes: a large nationally representative Hungarian population survey.
        Psychosom. Med. 2009; 71: 501-507
        • California Health Interview Survey
        CHIS 2011–2012 Methodology Report Series: Data Collection Methods.
        2014 (http://healthpolicy.ucla.edu/chis/design/documents/chis2011-2012_method-1_2014-06-09.pdf (accessed 01.02.14).)
        • Andersen R.M.
        Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: does it matter.
        J. Health Soc. Behav. 1995; 36: 1-10
        • Andersen R.M.
        Improving access to care in America: individual and contextual indicators.
        in: Davidson P.L. Changing the U.S. Health Care System: Key Issues in Health Services, Policy, and Management. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA2001: 3-30
        • Kessler R.C.
        • Barker P.R.
        • Colpe L.J.
        • Epstein J.F.
        • Gfroerer J.C.
        • Hiripi E.
        • et al.
        Screening for serious mental illness in the general population.
        Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2003; 60: 184-189
        • Kessler R.C.
        • Andrews G.
        • Colpe L.J.
        • Hiripi E.
        • Mroczek D.K.
        • Normand S.L.T.
        • et al.
        Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress.
        Psychol. Med. 2002; 32: 959-976
        • Shin J.K.
        • Chiu Y.L.
        • Choi S.
        • Cho S.
        • Bang H.
        Serious psychological distress, health risk behaviors, and diabetes care among adults with type 2 diabetes: The California Health Interview Survey 2007.
        Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2012; 95: 406-414
        • Meadows G.
        • Burgess P.
        • Bobevski I.
        • Fossey E.
        • Harvey C.
        • Liaw S.-T.
        Perceived need for mental health care: influences of diagnosis, demography and disability.
        Psychol. Med. 2002; 32: 299-309
        • Mojtabai M.R.
        • Olfson M.
        • Mechanic D.
        Perceived need and help-seeking in adults with mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders.
        Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2002; 59: 77-84
        • Mechanic D.
        Removing barriers to care among persons with psychiatric symptoms.
        Health Aff. 2002; 21: 137-147
        • Codony M.
        • Alonso J.
        • Almansa J.
        • Bernert S.
        • Girolamo G.D.
        • Graaf R.D.
        • et al.
        Perceived need for mental health care and service use among adults in Western Europe: results of the ESEMeD Project.
        Psychiatric Serv. 2009; 60: 1051-1058
        • Edlund M.J.
        • Unützer J.
        • Curran G.M.
        Perceived need for alcohol, drug, and mental health treatment.
        Soc. Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2006; 41: 480-487
        • Hochhausen L.
        • Le H.N.
        • Perry D.F.
        Community-based mental health service utilization among low-income Latina immigrants.
        Community Ment. Health J. 2009; 47: 14-23
        • Surood S.
        • Lai D.W.
        Impact of culture on use of Western health services by older South Asian Canadians.
        Can. J. Public Health. 2010; 101: 176-180
        • Dhingra S.
        • Zack M.
        • Strine T.
        • Pearson W.
        • Balluz L.
        Determining prevalence and correlates of psychiatric treatment with Andersen's behavioral model of health services use.
        Psychiatr. Serv. 2010; 61: 524-528
        • Chung J.H.
        • Moon K.
        • Kim D.H.
        • Min J.W.
        • Kim T.H.
        • Hwang H.J.
        Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among diabetes mellitus: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, V) from 2007 to 2012.
        J. Psychosom. Res. 2014; 77: 457-461
        • Han S.J.
        • Kim H.J.
        • Choi Y.J.
        • Lee K.W.
        • Kim D.J.
        Increased risk of suicidal ideation in Korean adults with both diabetes and depression.
        Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2013; 101: e14-e17