- •People with T2DM have a reduced risk of developing COPD compared with matched controls.
- •This may be related to positive life style changes, including smoking cessation, in those with T2DM.
- •Diabetes duration, diabetic complications and anti-diabetic medications did not alter COPD risk.
Materials and methods
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Prevalence of comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Respiration. 2010; 80: 112-119
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 2478-2484
- Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and type 2 diabetes in the women’s health study.Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2010; 90: 365-371
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes.COPD Res. Pract. 2015; 1: 0005
- Inhaled corticosteroids and the risks of diabetes onset and progression.Am. J. Med. 2010; 123: 1001-1006
- From COPD to chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome?.Lancet. 2007; 370: 797-799
- Patients diagnosed with diabetes are at increased risk for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and pneumonia but not lung cancer.Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 55-60
- Diabetes mellitus and ventilatory capacity: a five year follow-up study.Eur. Respir. J. 1990; 3: 288-292
- Baseline ventilatory function predicts the development of higher levels of fasting insulin and fasting insulin resistance index: the Normative Aging Study.Eur. Respir. J. 1998; 12: 641-645
- The impact of insulin sensitisers on lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes.Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2010; 14: 362-367
- Respiratory effects of insulin sensitisation with metformin: a prospective observational study.COPD. 2014; 11: 133-142
- Codes, classifications, terminologies and nomenclatures: definition, development and application in practice.Inform. Prim. Care. 2005; 13: 65-70
- Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) sentinel network: a cohort profile.BMJ Open. 2016; 6e011092
- The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome: how is it defined and what are its clinical implications?.J. Asthma Allergy. 2016; 9: 27-35
- Real-world evidence studies into treatment adherence, thresholds for intervention and disparities in treatment in people with type 2 diabetes in the UK.BMJ Open. 2016; 6e012801
- An eight-step method for assessing diagnostic data quality in practice: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as an exemplar.Inform. Prim. Care. 2004; 12: 243-254
Government. DfCaL 2015, 2017. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/english-indices-of-deprivation-2015. (Accessed 8 August 2017).
RStudio Team 2015, 2017. https://www.rstudio.com/. (Accessed 24 July 2017).
T.M. Therneau, T. Lumley, 2017. http://cran.irsn.fr/web/packages/survival/survival.pdf. (Accessed 24 July 2017).
- The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.PLoS Med. 2007; 4e296
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: latest evidence and clinical implications.Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 2014; 5: 212-227
- Association between glycaemic control and common infections in people with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study.Diabet. Med. 2017; 34: 551-557
- US public health and the 21st century: diabetes mellitus.Lancet. 2000; 356: 757-761
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: need for a double-pronged approach.Diabetes Manage. 2014; 4: 307-310
- Impact of diabetes on epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes of patients with heart failure.JACC Heart Fail. 2015; 3: 136-145
- Pulmonary function in diabetes: a metaanalysis.Chest. 2010; 138: 393-406
- Obesity and asthma: physiological perspective.J. Allergy. 2013; 2013: 198068
- Afrezza inhaled insulin: the fastest-acting FDA-approved insulin on the market has favorable properties.J. Diabetes Sci. Technol. 2014; 8: 1071-1073
- The impact of insulin sensitisation with metformin on lung function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Endocr. Abstr. 2016; 41 (EP543)
- Metformin in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial.Thorax. 2016; 71: 587-593
British Lung Foundation 2013, 2017. https://statistics.blf.org.uk/copd. (Accessed 12 June 2017).