Advertisement

Prevalence of taste and smell impairment in adults with diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

      Highlights

      • Higher prevalence of smell impairment in adults with diabetes.
      • No observed taste impairment in adults with diabetes.
      • Daily calorie intake appears to be reduced in people with smell impairment.

      Abstract

      Aim

      This study investigates the prevalence of smell and taste impairment in adults with diabetes and potential risk factors for sense deterioration and its influence of daily food intake.

      Methods

      Data from the NHANES 2013-2014 were analyzed. Smell impairment was defined as failing to identify ≥3 of 8 odors in NHANES Pocket Smell Test. Taste impairment was defined as being unable to identify quinine or NaCl in NHANES Tongue Tip and Whole-mouth Test.

      Results

      A total of 3204 people (428 patients with diabetes, 2776 controls) were suitable to be included. The prevalence of smell impairment in patients with diabetes was higher compared to the controls: 22% versus 15% (p < 0.001). The difference prevailed after adjustment for age, BMI, alcohol misuse and smoking status. Taste was not impaired in patients with diabetes (p = 0.29). Patients with diabetes and smell impairment had a lower daily calorie intake compared to patients with diabetes and normal smell function. The duration of diabetes, diabetic complications and other potential risk factors were not associated with smell dysfunction.

      Conclusions

      Smell dysfunction appears with a higher prevalence in patients with diabetes, and this seems to negatively affect daily food intake.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Primary Care Diabetes
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Liu G.
        • Zing G.
        • Doty R.L.
        • Sun Q.
        Prevalence and risk factors of taste and smell impairment in a nationwide representative sample of the US population: a cross-sectional study.
        BMJ Open. 2016; 6: e013246
        • Doty R.L.
        Neurotoxic exposure and impairment of the chemical senses of taste and smell.
        Handb. Clin. Neurol. 2015; 131: 299-324
        • Duda-Sobczak A.
        • Araszkiewicz A.
        • Urbas M.
        • Borucki L.
        • Kulas K.
        • Chudzinski M.
        • Suwalska A.
        • Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz D.
        Impaired olfactory function is related to the presence of neuropathy in adults with type 1 diabetes.
        Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res. 2017; 14: 139-143
        • Khobragade R.S.
        • Wakode S.L.
        • Kale A.H.
        Psysiological taste threshold in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
        Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2012; 56: 42-47
        • Wasalathanthri S.
        • Hettiarachchi P.
        • Prathapan S.
        Sweet taste sensitivity in pre-diabetics, diabetics and normoglycemic controls: a comparative cross sectional study.
        BMC Endocr. Disord. 2014; 14
        • Gouveri E.
        • Katotomichelakis M.
        • Gouveris H.
        • Danielides V.
        • Maltezos E.
        • Papanas N.
        Olfactory dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an additional manifestation of microvasculardisease?.
        Angiology. 2014; 65: 869-876
        • Brady S.
        • Lalli P.
        • Midha N.
        • Chan A.
        • Garven A.
        • Chan C.
        • Toth C.
        Presence of neuropathic pain may explain poor performances on olfactory testing in diabetes mellitus patients.
        Chem. Senses. 2013; 38: 497-507
        • Gondivkar S.M.
        • Indurkar A.
        • Degwekar S.
        • Bhowate R.
        Evaluation of gustatory function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
        Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 2009; 108: 876-880
        • Naka A.
        • Riedl M.
        • Luger A.
        • Hummel T.
        • Mueller C.A.
        Clinical significance of smell and taste disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus.
        Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 2010; 267: 547-550
        • Yu J.H.
        • Shin M.S.
        • Kim D.J.
        • Lee J.R.
        • Yoon S.Y.
        • Kim S.G.
        • Koh E.H.
        • Lee W.J.
        • Park J.Y.
        • Kim M.S.
        Enhanced carbohydrate craving in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.
        Diabet. Med. 2013; 30: 1080-1086
        • Le Floch J.P.
        • Le Lièvre G.
        • Labroue M.
        • Paul M.
        • Peynegre R.
        • Perlemuter L.
        Smell dysfunction and related factors in diabetic patients.
        Diabetes Care. 1993; 16: 934-937
        • Bustos-Saldaña R.
        • Alfaro-Rodríguez M.
        • Solís-Ruiz Mde L.
        • Trujillo-Hernández B.
        • Pacheco-Carrasco M.
        • Vázquez-Jiménez C.
        • Celis-de la Rosa Ade J.
        Taste sensitivity diminution in hyperglycemic type 2 diabetics patients.
        Rev. Med. Inst. Mex. Seguro. Soc. 2009; 47: 483-488
        • Boesveldt S.
        • de Graaf K.
        The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior.
        Perception. 2017; 46: 307-319
      1. R. Huntriss, M., Campbell, C. Bedwell, The interpretation and effect of a low-carbohydrate diet in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. 21 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-017-0019-4.

        • Hillson R.
        Taste and smell in diabetes.
        Pract. Diabetes. 2014; 31: 269-271
      2. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/Nchs/Nhanes/2013-2014/CSX_H.htm, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies, Taste & Smell (CSX_H), Data File: CSX_H.xpt First Published: February 2016

        • Bartoshuk L.M.
        • Duffy V.B.
        • Green B.G.
        • Hoffman H.J.
        • Ko C.W.
        • Lucchina L.A.
        • Marks L.E.
        • Snyder D.J.
        • Weiffenbach J.M.
        Valid across-group comparisons with labeled scales: the gLMS versus magnitude matching.
        Physiol. Behav. 2004; 82: 109-114
      3. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/Nchs/Nhanes/2013-2014/BPX_H.htm, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies, Blood Pressure (BPX_H), Data File: BPX_H.xpt First Published: October 2015

        • Carey R.M.
        • Wheltin P.K.
        2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline Writing Committee, Prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: synopsis of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Hypertension Guideline.
        Ann. Intern. Med. 2018; 168: 351-358
        • Mesholam R.I.
        • Moberg P.J.
        • Mahr R.N.
        • Doty R.L.
        Olfaction in neurodegenerative disease: a meta-analysis of olfactory functioning in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
        Arch. Neurol. 1998; 55: 84-90
        • Altundag A.
        • Ay S.A.
        • Hira S.
        • Salihoglu M.
        • Baskoy K.
        • Deniz F.
        • Tekeli H.
        • Kurt O.
        • Yonem A.
        • Hummel T.
        Olfactory and gustatory functions in patients with noncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus.
        Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 2017; 274: 1-7
        • Yu J.H.
        • Shin M.S.
        • Lee J.R.
        • Choi J.H.
        • Koh E.H.
        • Lee W.J.
        • Park J.Y.
        • Kim M.S.
        Decreased sucrose preference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 104: 214-219
        • Verma S.
        • Hussain M.E.
        Obesity and diabetes. An update.
        Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 2017; 11: 73-79
        • Fernández-Aranda F.
        • Agüera Z.
        • Fernández-García J.C.
        • Garrido-Sanchez L.
        • Alcaide-Torres J.
        • Tinahones F.J.
        • Giner-Bartolomé C.
        • Baños R.M.
        • Botella C.
        • Cebolla A.
        • de la Torre R.
        • Fernández-Real J.M.
        • Ortega F.J.
        • Frühbeck G.
        • Gómez-Ambrosi J.
        • Graneo M.A.
        • Islam S.
        • Jiménez-Murcia S.
        • Tárrega S.
        • Menchon J.M.
        • Fagundo A.B.
        • Sancho C.
        • Estivil X.
        • Treasure J.
        • Casanuev F.F.
        Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions.
        Endocrine. 2016; 51: 256-267
        • Hummel T.
        • Whitcroft K.L.
        • Andrews P.
        • Altungdag A.
        • Cinghi C.
        • Costanzo R.M.
        • Damm M.
        • Frasnelli J.
        • Gudziol H.
        • Gupta N.
        • Haehne A.
        • Holbrook E.
        • Hong S.C.
        • Horning D.
        • Hüttenbrink K.B.
        • Kamel R.
        • Kobayashi M.
        • Konstantinidis I.
        • Landis B.N.
        • Leopold D.A.
        • Macchi A.
        • Miwa T.
        • Moesges R.
        • Mullol J.
        • Mueller C.A.
        • Ottaviano G.
        • Passali G.C.
        • Philpott C.
        • Pinto J.M.
        • Ramakrishnan V.J.
        • Rombaux P.
        • Roth Y.
        • Schlosser R.A.
        • Shu B.
        • Soler G.
        • Stjärne P.
        • Stuck B.A.
        • Vodicka J.
        A Welge-Luessen, Position paper on olfactory dysfunction.
        Rhinol Supple. 2017; 54: 1-30
        • Sanke H.
        • Mita T.
        • Yoshii H.
        • Yokota A.
        • Yamashiro K.
        • Ingaki N.
        • Onuma T.
        • Someya Y.
        • Komiya K.
        • Tamura Y.
        • Shimizu T.
        • Ohmura C.
        • Kanazawa A.
        • Fujitani Y.
        • Watada H.
        Relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus.
        Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2014; 106: 465-473
        • Lietzau G.
        • Davidsson W.
        • Östenson C.G.
        • Chiazza F.
        • Nathanson D.
        • Pintana H.
        • Skogsberg J.
        • Klein T.
        • Nyström T.
        • Darsalia V.
        • Patrone C.
        Type 2 diabetes impairs odour detection, olfactory memory and olfactory neuroplasticity; effects partly reversed by the DPP-4 inhibitor Linagliptin.
        Acta Neuropathol. Commun. Neurosci. Dis. 2018; 6https://doi.org/10.1186/s40478-018-0517-1