- •Sleep deprivation has the potential to decrease insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance throughout the body.
- •No critical role of glucose-counterregulatory hormones in glucose disturbance after 14-days of consecutive sleep deprivation.
- •Increases in sleep duration and sleep quality could improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients.
Optimizing sleep has been recently gained exposure as a promising lifestyle consideration to aid in the control of diabetes. The evidence to support the impact of sleep quantity and quality on blood glucose control is largely acknowledged. This study aimed to review all published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the relationship between sleep and glucose control to synthesize an accurate overview.
Literature from PubMed and Google Scholar was searched using the listed search terms to obtain RCTs on the role of sleep in glucose homeostasis. Seven RCTs were eligible and included in our review. References in these RCTs were screened for the presentation of the pathophysiology of metabolic disturbances relating to the sleep duration, and the relevant factors affecting blood glucose concentration.
Sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality are connected with blood glucose disturbance and reduction of insulin sensitivity. This leaves diabetic patients at an increased risk of glucose level fluctuations. However, the function of β-cells was likely to be conserved after 14-days of sleep deprivation. Sleep extension from 7 to 14 days improved blood glucose control and insulin sensitivity in both healthy and diabetes participants. Diabetes sleep education and personalized interventions that reduced stress and improved sleep quality contributed to glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. Overall improving one’s sleep hygiene was found to improve glucose control in diabetic patients.
Longer or short-term sleep deprivation may negatively affect glucose homeostasis, although the body temporarily compensates for the impaired function of β-cells when reduced sleep lasted up to 14 days. Thus, we recommend optimum sleep duration and optimistic sleep duration and sleep quality for decreasing risk and progression of diabetes.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Primary Care Diabetes
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
Global report on diabetes. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241565257.
- Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.J. Appl. Physiol. (Bethesda, Md: 1985). 2005; 99: 2008-2019
- Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and Discussion.Sleep. 2015; 38: 1161-1183
- Trends in self-reported sleep duration among US adults from 1985 to 2012.Sleep. 2015; 38: 829-832
- The contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students: a cross-sectional study.J. Res. Med. Sci. 2012; 17: 557-561
- Acute sleep restriction reduces insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys.Sleep. 2013; 36: 1085-1090
- Sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.Diabetes Care. 2015; 38: 529-537
- Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 414-420
- Personalized intervention to improve stress and sleep patterns for glycemic control and weight management in obese Emirati patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled clinical trial.Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Obes. Targets Ther. 2019; 12: 991-999
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of current trends.Oman Med. J. 2012; 27: 269-273
- Glucose counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia.Pediatr. Endocrinol. Rev. 2011; 9: 463-475
- Demonstration of a role for growth hormone in glucose counterregulation.Am. J. Physiol. 1989; 256: E835-843
- Contribution of cortisol to glucose counterregulation in humans.Am. J. Physiol. 1989; 257: E35-42
- Immune, inflammatory and cardiovascular consequences of sleep restriction and recovery.Sleep Med. Rev. 2012; 16: 137-149
- Inflammatory markers and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 166-175
- Impaired insulin signaling in human adipocytes after experimental sleep restriction: a randomized, crossover study.Ann. Intern. Med. 2012; 157: 549-557
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the impact of sleep duration on adiposity and components of energy balance.Obes. Rev. 2015; 16: 771-782
- Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta).Science (New York, NY). 2001; 292: 1728-1731
- The impact of sleep debt on excess adiposity and insulin sensitivity in patients with early type 2 diabetes mellitus.J. Clin. Sleep Med. 2016; 12: 673-680
- Obesity and insulin resistance.J. Clin. Invest. 2000; 106: 473-481
- Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index.PLoS Med. 2004; 1: e62
- Effects of sleep restriction on metabolism-related parameters in healthy adults: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Sleep Med. Rev. 2019; 45: 18-30
- The role of leptin in the control of body weight.Nutr. Rev. 2002; 60 (discussion S68–84, 85–17): S15-S19
- Ghrelin-leptin tango in body-weight regulation.Gastroenterology. 2003; 124: 1532-1535
- Timing modulates the effect of sleep loss on glucose homeostasis.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2019; 104: 2801-2808
- Exposure to recurrent sleep restriction in the setting of high caloric intake and physical inactivity results in increased insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009; 94: 3242-3250
- Sleep duration in the United States: a cross-sectional population-based study.Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009; 169: 1052-1063
- Effect of sleep deprivation on insulin sensitivity and cortisol concentration in healthy subjects.Diabetes Nutr. Metab. 2000; 13: 80-83
- Effects of two-week sleep extension on glucose metabolism in chronically sleep-deprived individuals.J. Clin. Sleep Med. 2019; 15: 711-718
- The effects of a sleep extension intervention on glucose control in youth with type 1 diabetes.Diabetes. 2018; 67 (849-P)
- Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. When and what to use.Drugs. 1994; 48: 25-40
- Impact of short-term treatment with benzodiazepines and imidazopyridines on glucose metabolism in healthy subjects.J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2014; 37: 203-206
- Effect of diabetes sleep education for T2DM who sleep after midnight: a pilot study from China.Metab. Syndr. Relat. Disord. 2018; 16: 13-19
- The role of sleep duration in diabetes and glucose control.Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2016; 75: 512-520
- The impact of sleep amount and sleep quality on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sleep Med. Rev. 2017; 31: 91-101
- Sleep and diabetes.Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 2018; 24: 555-560
Published online: April 10, 2021
Accepted: April 5, 2021
Received in revised form: March 21, 2021
Received: March 10, 2020
© 2021 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.