Blood glucose monitoring (BGM) still matters for many: Associations of BGM frequency and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes


      • Our findings support the need for more meter download use in clinical practice.
      • Frequent BGM was associated with lower A1c and lower mean glucose.
      • Acknowledging BGM importance among low-adherent youth justify the use of technologies.



      This study aimed to compare three approaches of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) frequency attainment and to examine their associations with glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D).


      Cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline assessment in three clinical trials. Clinical and demographic characteristics of youth with T1D was obtained by chart review. BGM frequency was assessed by parent-youth interview, chart review, and meter downloads. To examine the relationship between A1c and frequency of BGM we performed analysis of variance.


      In youth with T1D (N = 385, 50% female, age 13.6 ± 2.5 years, 74% pump users), the 3 methods of assessing BGM frequency were significantly correlated. Frequency by self-report (6.4 ± 2.3 times/day) was significantly higher than both meter download (5.6 ± 2.4 times/day, p < 0.0001) and clinician report (5.7 ± 2.4 times/day, p < 0.0001). For all methods, more frequent BGM was associated with lower A1c and lower mean glucose (p < 0.0001). For each additional daily blood glucose check, there was a 0.2% decrease in A1c (p < 0.0001).


      BGM remains a potent predictor of glycemic control, warranting continued targeting in clinical efforts to improve glycemic management in youth with T1D.


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