Factors influencing on development of COVID-19 pneumonia and association with oral anti-diabetic drugs in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus

Published:August 03, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2021.08.001


      • Factors affecting the development of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with diabetes mellitus are not well known.
      • No oral anti-diabetics were associated with COVID-19 related death.
      • DPP-4 inhibitor use was associated with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia.



      Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases mortality and morbidity in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this study, it was aimed to assess factors influencing on COVID-19 pneumonia in hospitalized patients with diabetes and association with oral anti-diabetic drugs.

      Materials and methods

      This cross-sectional study included 432 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed with COVID-19. Data regarding clinical characteristics, demographic characteristics, intensive care unit (ICU) rate in patients admitted to ICU, laboratory results on day 1 and 7, thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings and oral anti-diabetic drugs used were extracted from medical records. In all patients, 75-days mortality was recorded. Data were assessed independently.


      There was pneumonia in 386 (89.4%) of 432 patients with diabetes. The risk for pneumonia was markedly higher in patients on DPP-4 inhibitors; however, there was no significant among other oral anti-diabetic groups and subgroups. In addition, elevated CRP was linked to the increased risk for pneumonia. Only patients in the pneumonia group had SGLT-2 inhibitor use. During follow-up, 91 patients died. In Cox regression analysis, low Glasgow Coma Scale score, and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels were identified as significant independent risk factors for mortality.


      The study indicated that DPP-4 inhibitor used and elevated CRP level were associated with pneumonia development. Only patients in the pneumonia group had SGLT-2 inhibitor use. No oral anti-diabetics was found to be associated with COVID-19 related death.

      Graphical abstract


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