Factors influencing on development of COVID-19 pneumonia and association with oral anti-diabetic drugs in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus

Published:August 03, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2021.08.001

      Highlights

      • Factors affecting the development of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with diabetes mellitus are not well known.
      • No oral anti-diabetics were associated with COVID-19 related death.
      • DPP-4 inhibitor use was associated with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia.

      Abstract

      Background

      Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases mortality and morbidity in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this study, it was aimed to assess factors influencing on COVID-19 pneumonia in hospitalized patients with diabetes and association with oral anti-diabetic drugs.

      Materials and methods

      This cross-sectional study included 432 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed with COVID-19. Data regarding clinical characteristics, demographic characteristics, intensive care unit (ICU) rate in patients admitted to ICU, laboratory results on day 1 and 7, thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings and oral anti-diabetic drugs used were extracted from medical records. In all patients, 75-days mortality was recorded. Data were assessed independently.

      Results

      There was pneumonia in 386 (89.4%) of 432 patients with diabetes. The risk for pneumonia was markedly higher in patients on DPP-4 inhibitors; however, there was no significant among other oral anti-diabetic groups and subgroups. In addition, elevated CRP was linked to the increased risk for pneumonia. Only patients in the pneumonia group had SGLT-2 inhibitor use. During follow-up, 91 patients died. In Cox regression analysis, low Glasgow Coma Scale score, and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels were identified as significant independent risk factors for mortality.

      Conclusion

      The study indicated that DPP-4 inhibitor used and elevated CRP level were associated with pneumonia development. Only patients in the pneumonia group had SGLT-2 inhibitor use. No oral anti-diabetics was found to be associated with COVID-19 related death.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

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