Maternal and newborn effects of gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study

Published:September 21, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2021.09.007

      Highlights

      • In the first 3 months, the weight gain of infant born from GDM mothers were 53% higher than infant born from GDM free mothers.
      • In the consecutive 6 months, the risk of infectious disease episodes was 2.15 folds higher among infants born from GDM mothers.
      • The mean serum vitamin D levels of neonate born from GDM mothers is 22.71 ng/ml, while for neonate born from GDM free mothers is 24.56 ng/ml.
      • The mean serum zinc level for newborn from GDM mothers is 0.64 μg/ml and for GDM free mothers is 0.82 μg/ml.
      • The incidence density for wound infection among GDM C/S women is 78/1228 person week.

      Abstract

      Background

      Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a high glucose level detected during pregnancy and usually it disappears after 42 days of post partum. The aim of this research was to assess the maternal and newborn effects of GDM in resource limited settings.

      Methods

      A prospective cohort was implemented in the five referral hospitals of Amhara region. Data were collected using both primary data collection tool and reviewing the patients’ charts. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the effects of GDM on the pregnancy outcomes, fractional regression was used to estimate the proportion of weight gain in the first 3 months, Poisson regression was used to identify the effects of GDM on the episodes of childhood infectious diseases, independent sample t-test was used to estimate the effects of GDM on the newborn serum zinc and vitamin D levels.

      Results

      A total of 3459 women were included with a response rate of 85.56%. Cesarean section rate among GDM mother was 40.3% and among GDM free mothers was 7.1%. In the first 3 months, the weight gains of infant born from GDM mothers were 53% higher than infant born from GDM free mothers. GDM increases the risk of infectious disease episodes by 4 folds. GDM decreases the neonatal serum zinc and vitamin D levels.

      Conclusion

      GDM increases the maternal complications of pregnancy; GDM significantly depletes the newborn micronutrient levels and increase the episodes of infectious diseases during the infancy periods.

      Keywords

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