Research Article| Volume 16, ISSUE 2, P264-270, April 2022

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Effectiveness of clinical pharmacist-led smartphone application on medication adherence, insulin injection technique and glycemic control for women with gestational diabetes receiving multiple daily insulin injection: A randomized clinical trial

Published:February 12, 2022DOI:


      • Clinical pharmacist-led app significantly promoted GDM women’s medication compliance.
      • Clinical pharmacist-led app improved GDM women’s insulin injection technique.
      • Clinical pharmacist-led app reduced their insulin requirement during pregnancy.
      • Well antepartum and puerperal glycemic control were observed after app intervention.
      • App usage was related to a 22.9% reduction in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission.



      To investigate the efficacy of a clinical pharmacist-led smartphone application (app) on medication adherence, insulin injection technique (IIT) and diabetes-related outcomes among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) receiving insulin therapy.


      In all, 124 women were randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive app intervention plus usual care (intervention) or usual care (control), and were followed up till 12 weeks postpartum. Interventions centralized on medication adherence and IIT. Primary outcome was medication adherence assessed by the 5-item Medication Adherence Report Scale. Secondary outcomes included IIT, insulin requirement, prepartal and puerperal glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.


      A total of 119 patients completed the follow-up evaluation (58 intervention, 61 control). Significant more women with high medication adherence in the intervention group was observed (69.0% vs. 34.4%, p = 0.000). The other notable benefits (all p < 0.05) included patient percentage with appropriate IIT, lesser preprandial insulin dose, patient proportion with both qualified prepartal FPG and 2 hPG, and puerperal FPG or HbA1c, fewer hypoglycemia, and lower neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission rate. Cesarean delivery rate was higher among intervention cases (p < 0.05). Qualified prepartal glycemic control was related to high medication adherence and proper IIT. NICU admission was associated with complicated with gestational hypertension, deficient medication adherence and premature rupture of fetal membrane.


      Combined with usual care, clinical pharmacist-led smartphone app might be a valid tool for GDM management.


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